The main focus in Preliminary PDHPE is on skeletal muscle, although you will also learn about cardiac muscle when you look at the circulatory system. Synovial joints allow for various different types of movements known as joint actions, eg extension and flexion. These joint actions occur through different planes of movement. The planes of movement are illustrated in the image below.
These planes are used to help describe the types of movement and joint actions. Each joint action is defined below with a gif. They are also all nicely summarised in this video that looks at the types of movement.
Flexion is when the angle between two body segments decreases across the joint. This usually occurs in a sagittal plane and refers to the anterior (front) body surfaces, e.g. flexion of the elbow.
Extension is when the angle between two body segments increases across the joint. This usually occurs in a sagittal plane, e.g. extension of the elbow.
Abduction is when the body part is moved away from the centreline (laterally) of the body. This movement occurs in the frontal plane, e.g. shoulder abduction
Adduction is when the body part is moved towards from the centreline (medially) of the body, including movements that go past the centreline. This movement occurs in the frontal plane, e.g. shoulder adduction.
Circumduction is when the distal end of a limb has a circular movement moving 360 degrees while the proximal end remains fixed, e.g. circumduction of the shoulder
Rotation is when the body part is twisted and occurs in the transverse plane. Rotation can be internal (anterior surface moves medially) or external (anterior surface moves laterally), e.g. hip rotation.
Joint Specific Actions
Supination of the forearm is when the hand rotates to being palm up.
Pronation of the forearm is when the hand rotates to being palm down
Inversion is when the plantar surface (bottom) of the foot turns medially.
Eversion is the when the plantar surface of the foot turns laterally.
Plantar flexion is when the toes and ball of the foot “flex” downward (inferiorly).
Dorsi flexion is when the toes and ball of the foot “flex” upward (superiorly).