Question 24 (8 marks)
How do the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter address the principles of social justice? Include examples in your answer. (PDHPE HSC exam, 2013)
The top marking criteria states that the answer should:
- Makes the relationship clearly evident between the principles of social justice and the FIVE action areas of the Ottawa Charter
- Provides examples that support the relationship and demonstrate a clear understanding of social justice principles
PDHPE HSC marking criteria, 2013
The distinguishing characteristics of these criteria from those that would attain 6-7 marks are blue. That is, the difference is that the 8 mark answer makes the relationship clearly evident and addresses all five of the action areas. To achieve the highest mark you also need to not only have examples but use them to support the relationship and demonstrate a clear understanding of social justice principles.
In the sample answer below each action area of the Ottawa charter should be used and clearly related or connected to the principles of social justice. These will be brown.
The clear connection means we expect them to be linked together within each paragraph as each of the action areas are addressed in the sample answer. The social justice principles will be red, and the link in purple.
In addition to this, we should see examples that support these relationships and demonstrate a clear understanding of the social justice principles in the sample answer as well. These are green.
Social Justice Principles (SJP) (participation, equity, access and rights) are an essential foundation for Health Promotion (HP) strategies and are strongly linked in the Ottawa Charter.
Developing Personal Skills (DPS) – individuals use knowledge and skills to make informed decisions and positively influence those around them. SJP linked to DPS are EQUITY and ACCESS; ACCESS to the education and information necessary to develop the skills and EQUITY to ensure access is not limited by economic status, gender, race etc (NSW – compulsory education until 17 yrs).
Creating Supporting Environment (CSE) – increases a person’s chances of making changes to benefit their health. SJP of PARTICIPATION relates to CSE by encouraging individuals and communities to participate in strategies, which will benefit/improve their health (using QUIT helpline).
Strengthening Community Action (SCA) – HP is more effective when communities get involved/support. SJP of EQUITY and RIGHTS is reinforced by valuing an individual’s/community’s culture which will strengthen the success of the HP strategy (Relay for Life).
Reorient Health Services (RHS) – encourages health professionals to move beyond traditional medicine and employ diverse treatment methods. EQUITY is addressed in RHS to ensure health services cater for all, irrespective of culture, race, SE (alternative therapies). In addition, the SJP of ACCESS and RIGHTS is used to ensure every Australian has access to our health system (Medicare).
PDHPE HSC marking criteria, 2013
It is interesting to note, that the sample answer does not use a set structure for each paragraph. While a basic adhesion to providing an opening statement that is expanded upon and linked back to the question by using an example can be seen, this is not strictly adhered to. This helps to highlight, that although the SEAL, SEXY or PEEL structure is helpful to guide you, it does not have to be followed to achieve the top band result.
It is strange to notice that the sample answer does not fit the band 6 marking criteria. The criteria clearly state all FIVE of the action areas have to be addressed and this sample answer does not. However, a closer look shows that building healthy public policy is included in the sample answer, although it is not explicitly stated. This is how it manages to still be a band six (6) sample answer. Examples such as, NSW – compulsory education until 17 yrs, and Medicare used in the sample answer, are examples of public policies that connect with the principles of social justice but this is not explicitly stated as connected to this action area. This helps to highlight that it is the strength of the answer as a whole that is marked, not just clear and explicit details.
If we were to add an extra paragraph to address Building Healthy Public Policy it might look something like this:
Building healthy public policy (HPP) – policies are developed in order to promote health in each sector recognising the various determinants of health. SJP of PARTICIPATION, EQUITY, ACCESS, AND RIGHTS are addressed in HPP by creating policies that aim to encourage community participation, improve equity of health outcomes, provide access to health products and services and advocate for peoples rights to health (Close the Gap, Living Longer, Living Better Aged Care).
Note in the sample answer that the linking statement is introduced using the words: “by”, and “to”. These are causal terms that help to make the relationship clear and thus link the content to the question. Such terms often help show that your answer relates the Ottawa Charter and the Principles of Social Justice together and, therefore, answers the question.