In the identification of priority health issues the costs to the individual and community of the health issue must be examined. Costs to the individual and community come in various forms, such as: expenses, time, independence, and connection with other issues, such as mental health issues.
For example, a disease such as CVD is very expensive to treat, often involving large surgical procedures, lengthy recovery periods, loss of independence, loss of income, and is linked with lower self-esteem levels. This is a disease that also has very high costs to the community. The community pays for the surgery, the company the person works for loses money and family and friends often take time off work and become anxious about their relatives health and may be needed to be a carer for their relative.
Other issues, such as: musculoskeletal issues are often not as costly. Osteoarthritis though painful, does not always require people to take time off work, or have surgery. It is often treated through medications, though surgery can be needed at times (e.g. Hip replacement). It does not often cause depression in the sufferer and they do not generally require a carer or cause the same level of stress for their family members.